FoodHACCP Newsletter

Food Safety Job Openings

11/18. Food Safety Analyst – Arlington, VA
11/18. Food Safety Representative - Watsonville, CA
11/18. R&D Food Technician – Hayward, CA
11/16. Food Safety and Qual Spec - Neenah, WI
11/16. Food Safety and Facility Mgmt - Oak Park, MI
11/16. Food Technologist – Memphis, TN
11/14. Food Safety Technologist – Peru, IN
11/14. Food Safety Mgr-Berries - Winter Haven, FL
11/14. Quality & Food Safety Lead – Joliet, IL

11/21 2016 ISSUE:729


Miami Man Arrested for Allegedly Selling Horsemeat
Source :
By (Nov 21, 2016)
A 70-year-old Miami man is under arrest after an investigation by several agencies – including the Miami-Dade State Attorney’s Office and the U.S. Department of Agriculture – found he was allegedly selling illegal horse meat.
Manuel Coto-Martinez was arrested on two felony counts, including the unlawful sale of horse meat. On November 10th, an undercover Miami-Dade Police Department officer acting on a tip from an informant, purchased 20 pounds of meat for $140 from Coto-Martinez at his property off NW 182nd Street and 132nd Avenue, authorities said.
Colombian Drug Lord Flown to South Florida After Extradition
Subsequent tests showed the meat was indeed from a horse.
Coto-Martinez's brother, Lazaro Coto, said it's all a lie. He said they've worked in Miami for 50 years and called it a false alarm.
Police determined the meat was not marked or stamped as “horse meat for human consumption” and it was not acquired from a licensed slaughterhouse. Currently, there are no facilities licensed to slaughter horses for human consumption in America.
Coto-Martinez faces a mandatory one year sentence and $300,000 fine for selling the horse meat and could face up to five years in prison for year count.

Vibrio Infection Associated with Fish from WA Asian Food Center
Source :
By News Desk (Nov 19, 2016)
A woman from King County in Washington state was diagnosed with a wound caused by the bacteria Vibrio vulnificus on November 10, 2016. She was preparing tilapia fish purchased from the Asian Food Center at 14509 NE 20th Street in Bellevue.
The woman, who is in her fifties, allegedly contracted the infection while she was preparing the raw fish. She cut her finger during preparation, which gave the bacteria entry. She was hospitalized and is now recovering at home.
Vibrio bacteria live in seawater. This bacteria is very rarely found in the Pacific Northwest, but is more common in areas with warmer seawater, such as the Gulf of Mexico.
Public health officials are testing the fish tanks at the Asian Food Center and are also testing samples of fish from that facility to investigate the possibility that the bacteria came from that fish. The investigation is focusing on tilapia, but officials are also examining other species of fish. All of the tilapia and other fish processed at that location have been thrown away. Tanks and other equipment have been decommissioned until they can e disinfected.
Vibrio vulnifucus can cause life-threatening illness. If anyone has eaten or prepared fish purchased from that facility before November 17, 2016, they should monitor themselves for the symptoms of infection for seven days. If you purchased fish from this location before November 17, 2016, throw it away.
Dr. Jeff Duchin, Health Officer for Public Health – Seattle & King County said in a statement, “Persons who prepared or consumed fish of any kind from this location should contact their healthcare provider if they develop signs of skin infection, fever, chills, or diarrhea in the seven days after contact with the fish. At this time, there is no known risk for people who have not been in contact with fish from this location, but people should always take precautions when handling raw seafood.”
Seek medical care immediately if you have eaten or handled fish from Asian Food Center and you have developed these symptoms: a new skin infection, including redness, tenderness, swelling, streaking, and skin blisters; fever and chills; diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting; or any unexplained serious illness. If you have eaten or handled fish from that location and have had no illness after seven days, your risk of getting sick is low.
Some people are more at risk for serious Vibrio vulnificus infections. They include those with weakened immune systems, people with liver disease, diabetics, people with HIV, and those who take immune suppressing medications or meds to lower stomach acid.
To prevent these types of infections, always use gloves when handling raw seafood. Don’t touch raw seafood if you have wounds on your hands. Thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water after handling raw shellfish and other seafood. Don’t eat raw or undercooked shellfish. Wash cuts or wounds with soap or water if you have handled raw seafood or have come into contact with seawater. Stay out of saltwater if you have wounds, or cover the wounds with a waterproof bandage.




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Debunking Thanksgiving Myths
Source :
By Linda Larsen (Nov 18, 2016)
The USDA is trying to debunk Thanksgiving myths to help consumers keep their families safe over the holiday season. Many people believe these methods for preparing and storing food and they can make someone sick.
The first myth is that it’s okay to leave food outside when the weather is freezing. This may seem safe, especially if the temperature is below freezing and snow is on the ground, but it is not, for two reasons.
The first reason is animal contamination. Animals can get into food stored outside, and can easily contaminate it. Wild animals often carry pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli. And family pets can also harbor bacteria, even if they do not seem sick.
The second reason it is unsafe to store food outside is temperature variation. A plastic food storage container that it placed in the sun can easily heat up and temperatures inside can go into the danger zone between 40°F and 140°F. The best way to keep excess food at a safe temperature is in an insulated cooler packed with ice.
Another myth is that you can’t cook a frozen turkey. In fact, cooking turkey from the frozen state is not only safe, it produces a superior product. Step by step instructions on how to cook a frozen bird can be found here.
A third myth is that the Thanksgiving turkey is done when the juices run clear. The fact is that you always need to use a food thermometer to tell when the turkey is thoroughly cooked. Use the thermometer in three locations: the innermost part of the thigh, the innermost part of the wing, and the thickest part of the breast. The thermometer should read 165°F in all locations.
Juices do not run clear at that temperature, and when they do the turkey is usually overcooked, which results in dry meat. For more information, please see Is Pink Turkey Safe?
Have a wonderful and safe Thanksgiving with family and friends.

Food safety, from farm to fork
Source :
Risk of foodborne illness may rise during the holidays
By Sharon McDonald (Nov 18, 2016)
As the holiday season approaches, millions of Americans will be preparing, cooking, eating and cleaning up holiday feasts enjoyed with family and friends. With all the hustle and bustle that surrounds these events, sometimes food safety can take a back seat.
During the holidays, more people are cooking at home — and for larger numbers of people, which means more food, a larger variety of foods at the same time, and often more complex recipes. All of this creates unique food-safety challenges not necessarily encountered on a daily basis. Plus, the fact that one in six people become sick from a foodborne illness each year makes it a perfect time of year to remind folks about the importance of safe food handling for good health.
This year, the Partnership for Food Safety Education is sponsoring a campaign, called "The Story of Your Dinner," to support all the home cooks out there in getting a safe and healthy meal on the table.
"The Story of Your Dinner" focuses on the many food safety steps taken from farm and processing to retail and finally in the home kitchen — that last stop in the food safety chain. It is really as simple as following the four key food-safety practices of Clean, Separate, Cook and Chill.
Clean: Wash hands and surfaces often. Remember, you should wash your hands with hot water and soap for at least 20 seconds as you get ready to prepare food, when you change tasks, after coughing or sneezing or using the restroom, or any time your hands become contaminated. During this time, consider drying your hands with a paper towel rather than a cloth towel to prevent the spread of bacteria.
Another tip when it comes to "clean" — you do not need to "wash/rinse" your turkey before cooking. Rinsing under running water increases the risk of cross contamination, as water droplets splatter onto kitchen surfaces that then may not be properly cleaned and sanitized. You should carefully un-package your turkey, and if you must, just pat it with paper towels, being sure to dispose of these properly.
Separate: Keep raw products separated from ready-to-eat foods to prevent contamination. This includes during storage in the refrigerator and during preparation. Keep raw meats in containers that will prevent juices from dripping on other foods. When preparing foods, consider using separate cutting boards for raw and ready-to-eat items and/or prepping these foods at different times.
Cook: Cook to the recommended safe internal temperatures and use a food thermometer to check that the correct temperature has been reached. For turkey, the correct temperature is 165 F. You always can cook to a higher temperature, but this is the minimum that should be reached.
Chill: Refrigerate or freeze foods promptly, especially for leftovers. Leftover items should be refrigerated within two hours, so put everyone to work cleaning up before sitting down to dessert!
To learn more, visit the Partnership for Food Safety Education website. The site has links to many recipes you might want to try, as well as activity placemats for kids, a turkey hand and health activity, and a video about the chain of prevention from farm to table.
The last thing anyone wants is to become sick over the holidays. Even if you have been doing this for a long time and no one has ever gotten sick, it is better to be safe than sorry — so remember to Clean, Separate, Cook and Chill for a great holiday season!
Sharon McDonald is a registered dietitian, senior extension educator and food safety specialist for Penn State Extension. More information on food safety and nutrition can be found on Penn State Extension's Food & Health webpage at

How Much Do Consumers Really Know about Food Safety?
Source :
By Food Safety Tech Staff (Nov 18, 2016)
Consumers think they’re more likely to get a foodborne illness from food they consume at a restaurant versus food they prepare at home, and they’re also more worried about contamination of raw chicken or beef than contaminated raw vegetables.  These and other findings were part of an annual survey, conducted by FDA in partnership with FSIS and USDA, to assess and track consumers’ understanding of food safety handling techniques, along with their feelings and behaviors surrounding food safety. The findings can help the FDA determine its education efforts to help improve consumer food safety behaviors.
Nearly 4200 Americans participated in the survey between October 6, 2015 and January 17, 2016. The questions measured food safety behaviors such as handwashing and washing cutting boards; preparing and consuming risk foods; and food thermometer use. Highlighted findings among respondents include:
Rates of consumers owning food thermometers remains constant, but usage has increased for roasts, chicken parts and hamburgers over the past 10 years.
Handwashing rates remain constant or decreased between 2010 and 2016.
New finding: Only 35% of consumers wash their hands after touching handheld phones or tablets while preparing food.
67% wash raw chicken parts before cooking; 68% wash whole chicken or turkeys before cooking. “This practice is not recommended by food safety experts since washing will not destroy pathogens and may increase the risk of contaminating other foods and surfaces,” according to FDA.
65% of respondents had not heard of mechanically tenderized beef (Labeling required as of May 2016).
A full copy of the 49-page 2016 FDA Food Safety Survey is available on the agency’s website.

Massachusetts Raises Animal Welfare and Food Safety Standards
Source :
By Sarah Lozanova (Nov 18, 2016)
Crates that stop pigs from turning around and cages that cause the restrictive confinement of egg-laying hens are under increasing scrutiny from consumers. Two weeks ago, voters in Massachusetts passed a groundbreaking measure that bans certain types of farm animal containment.
Massachusetts Question 3 will prohibit breeding pigs, egg-laying hens and calves raised for veal from being too tightly confined and takes effect in 2022. The measure was designed to minimize the suffering of animals raised for eggs and meat and to avoid the spread of infectious diseases, such as salmonella.
The initiative amassed considerable support from nonprofits, farmers and veterinary clinics. The Humane Society of the United States, Animal Rescue League of Boston, Zoo New England, the Massachusetts Sierra Club, MSPCA, ASPCA, the Center for Food Safety, Center for Science in the Public Interest, the John Hopkins Center for a Livable Future and United Farm Workers are just some of the groups that came out in support of Question 3. In addition, more than 80 veterinary clinics, 150 farms or farmers and Massachusetts Gov. Charlie Baker support the ban.
A trip to the grocery store reveals how consumers are seeking foods with higher animal welfare, such as cage-free eggs and grass-fed beef. Support from Massachusetts voters for the ballot referendum was strong.
“What I find most interesting is that the ballot referendum passed with 78 percent of the vote,” said Janice Neitzel, CEO of Sustainable Solutions Group, a management consulting firm that guides foodservice companies in making animal welfare sourcing improvements. “This really speaks to consumer demand for animal proteins raised in better living conditions.”
Opposition to the bill raised concerns that such restrictions will increase food prices, while others voiced concerns that more types of farm animals weren’t included, such as beef cattle and broiler chickens. Neitzel believes the public is largely unaware of the animal welfare issues that are relatively common with current farming practices.
“My guess on why this measure passed so overwhelmingly is that consumers think farm animals are already being raised where they can stretch their legs and wings,” Neitzel said. “The social media videos [that portray poor animal welfare conditions] are a surprise when consumers find out that is not the case, especially for pigs and egg-laying hens. People are surprised to find out the densities of stocked animals in huge barns, and [they are] surprised to see the cages and crates.”
Opponents also say excessive confinement of farm animals is very rare in Massachusetts, implying that new restrictions are unnecessary. Neitzel responded: “This ballot measure affects animal proteins being imported for sale into the state, as well as livestock producers in the state. The former is likely to have more impact.”

Hairy crabs taking dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs into Hong Kong
Source :
BY NEWS DESK (Nov 17, 2016)
Among six hairy crab samples — three collected at the import level and three from retail sales — Hong Kong’s Center for Food Safety recently found one with levels of dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs that exceeded the maximum allowed by law.
The finding promoted further review and caused Hong Kong to suspend import of any hairy crabs from the Jiangsu Providence after Nov. 1 “to ensure food safety.” Jiangsu is a coastal Chinese province north of Shanghai.
A medium-sized burrowing crab known for its furry claws, the Shanghai hairy crab is formally known as the Da Zha crab. Dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs are chemical compounds that accumulate in fatty tissues of animals along the food chain.
The contaminated sample was taken from the Shing Lung Hong Co., a retailer, who said an their hairy crabs came from an aquaculture farm on the Mainland.
“However, initial investigation by the CFS found that the concerned sample, when comparing against one of the two samples taken from the two aquaculture farms in Taihu where the import of hairy crabs to Hong Kong was suspended earlier, the proportions of the individual dioxins level of these two hairy crab samples were highly similar,” according to the CFS notice.
Taihu is a large lake located about one hour west of Shanghai on China’s Mainland, where there aren’t any maximum limits for dioxins or PCBs in food.
Because CFS had reasonable double that the suspect sample did not originate where the retailer claimed it did, the agency opened up a investigation and took other appropriate action, including the complicated analysis of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs.
“The process includes extraction, multiple clean-up steps, instrumental analysis, substantial data analysis and review of findings when necessary, “ CFS’s spokeman said. “Thus, it normally takes two to four weeks for the analysis of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.”
Hong Kong requires that all food, locally produced or imported, must be fit for human consumption and each offense makes the violator subject to a $50,000 fine and/or six months imprisonment.
Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs can cause cancers, reproductive and development problems, a weakened immune systems, They occur naturally in the environment and as by-products of industrial activities.
The CFS spokesman said: “Sources of human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs include food intake, drinking water, air inhalation and skin contact. Dietary intake is by far the most exposure. Fatty foods, such as meat, poultry, seafood, milk and their products are the major dietary sources of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.”

For aquatic animals, CFS said parts like fatty livers and digestive glands are known to collect higher levels of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs. Occasional short-term exposure, however, would not cause any health consequences.
The World Health Organization has established consumption limits based on body weight on a monthly basis. Its goal is to reduce exposures for girls and women to protect the developing fetus and breastfeeding infants.
China is not alone in not having established maximum limits for dioxins and dioxins-like PCBs. The international Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) has no maximums.
CFS is a unit of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. It conducted its first study into Dioxin and PCBs in 2011.

Salmonella presumed cause of 77 illnesses, 12 hospitalizations
Source :
BY CATHY SIEGNER (Nov 17, 2016)
UPDATE: According to a statement posted Thursday by the Alabama Department of Public Health, “presumptive Salmonella gastroenteritis” caused at least 77 people to become sickened and 12 to be hospitalized following a private event in Colbert County this past Saturday.
All patients are recovering from what was described as vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain and some fever, according to the statement.
Health officials interviewed patients, obtained stool samples, inspected the food source and obtained food samples for testing at the state laboratory.
“The laboratory has reported that initial patient specimens tested presumptive positive for Salmonella. Food results are pending as it takes longer to process food specimens,” the statement noted.
The caterer, which has been reported as Indelible Catering of Moulton, AL, is cooperating with the health department and is no longer preparing food, according to the statement.
“The health department’s priorities are the health of the patients, a thorough investigation, and preventing any additional illness,” said Dr. Karen Landers, assistant state health officer. “This was a private event with exposure to the food over a specific time period. Therefore, there is no threat to the general public.”
Previous coverage follows:
Public health officials in northern Alabama are working to track down the source of a foodborne illness that has caused at least 40 people to seek medical attention and six to be hospitalized since Saturday night.
According to the Alabama Department of Public Health, officials started investigating the situation on Monday after reports emerged that a number of people had experienced bouts of diarrhea, vomiting, fever and abdominal pain following a weekend event in Sheffield, AL, near Muscle Shoals.
“Currently we have about 40 people reported ill, although we expect that number to change. We have six hospitalized, and that may change, and probably will change, depending on how individual patients respond,” said Dr. Karen Landers, assistant state health officer.
Speculation was that contaminated food served at a catered affair in Colbert County may have been the source of the problem, although health officials were not sharing details about the venue, the caterer, or the food items involved.
“This was a private, catered event, and there were 150 people who attended,” Landers told Food Safety News.
Local news reports indicated the event was a hotel wedding reception in the Shoals region, and a story published Wednesday by The TimesDaily of Florence, AL, reported the source of the reception food as Indelible Catering.
Food samples and patient stool samples are currently being analyzed in the state laboratory, and preliminary results could be available by Thursday, Landers said.
“We have a menu (from the event), and it is appropriate to check the entire menu and what patients ingested. We should not focus on one food agent,” she said.
Landers would not speculate about whether the source of the problem is Salmonella, as some Alabama media outlets have reported.
“Many things can cause foodborne illness,” she said. “What I will say is once we have laboratory confirmation, we will provide more information. Our concern is for the patients, and that is being done, and we have mitigated or stopped any risk to the general public.”
The TimesDaily noted that the same catering firm provided food for a luncheon in 2014 in Decatur, AL, after which at least 19 people reported becoming ill. One of them died.
Several of those sickened were later confirmed as having E. coli and Salmonella infections. However, none of the food prepared for that 2014 luncheon by Indelible Catering was ever definitively linked to the reported illnesses.

Highly toxic hairy crabs may have been hidden, then sold with fake documents: food safety watchdog investigates
Source :
By Emily Tsang (Nov 16, 2016)
Centre for Food Safety found hairy crab sample taken on November 3 exceeded amounts of two toxic chemical compounds
A Sheung Wan hairy crab retailer has been accused of hiding toxic hairy crabs during a citywide recall then selling them with fake documents, according to the food safety watchdog.
The Centre for Food Safety found a hairy crab sample taken on November 3 from Shing Lung Hong on Wing Lok Street which exceeded amounts of dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls. Both are highly toxic chemical compounds that can cause cancer and damage the reproductive and immune systems.
Dr Gloria Tam Lai-fan, the centre’s controller, announced yesterday that the sample, taken from the shop in the latest test, was “extremely similar” to a batch of toxic crabs from Lake Tai on
the mainland discovered by the ­centre earlier this month.
Hong Kong’s toxic hairy crab sellers ‘lying over suppliers’, says food watchdog
Since November 1, the government has issued a mandatory recall and trade ban on hairy crabs from the two farms on the lake in eastern Jiangsu province.
The centre suspected the problematic sample was left over from the toxic batch and that its declared origin of Xiantao city in Hubei province was false.
But the crab-seller denied there was any fabrication and ­instead claimed there had been a mix-up between different crabs.
“We are investigating the case and the centre will prosecute when necessary,” said Dr Gloria Tam Lai-fan, the centre’s controller. “It is possible that it involves forged documents.”
Of six hairy crab samples taken by the centre on November 3, only one was found to exceed the level of the toxic substance in the latest round of test results announced yesterday.
The sample, supposedly sourced from Xiantao city, was found to have dioxin levels of 42.7 picograms per gram – almost six times higher than the acceptable level of 6.5 picograms.
Hong Kong officials meet crab traders to better understand business in wake of tainted product scare

But Tam said the sample was “vastly different” from other hairy crabs sourced from Xiantao city, where all other samples were clear from the contamination. Instead, it was “extremely similar” to the toxic batch from Lake Tai.
The contamination scare first broke on November 1 when the centre announced two out of six hairy crab samples from Lake Tai were found to contain excessive levels of the compounds.
Shing Lung Hong issued a statement on the same day saying its hairy crabs were not sourced from the two mainland farms linked with the contamination.
It said its products came from its own farms around Lake Tai, and it only dealt with one of the aquaculture farms in question to get import and customs clearance.
The seller was among 15 local distributors named by the centre for getting crabs from the two mainland farms.
Hong Kong government slammed for taking too long to test hairy crab samples for dioxins
It was also one of the five who cried foul over being named – ­although the health minister later rejected their protestations following an investigation with mainland officials.
On Wednesday, however, one of the owners of Shing Lung Hong, Linda Li Chi-ching, said that it was likely different batch of crabs mixed up when the centre took the sample on November 3.
“Since new products are being added into the water vat all the time, I would not rule out the possibility that some older stock of crabs were left in the water,” Li said, refusing the centre’s accusation of forgery.
Police were called to the shop after a member of staff allegedly assaulted a reporter.

Alberta health officials shut down rogue food-sharing operation
Source :
BY NEWS DESK (Nov 16, 2016)
Alberta Health Services has issued a cease and desist order to a food-sharing company in Edmonton that was flouting Canadian food safety regulations by matching home cooks with customers through an online system.
The co-founder of Scarf said that letting customers check in online with 30 vetted home cooks, order, and pre-pay for a meal to pick up offered safer food and more accountability than eating in the typical restaurant.
“If somebody reports getting sick, we can check in with every other person who’s had the same meal,” Kian Parseyan said.
However, provincial health officials, who denied Parseyan and his partner an operating permit this past summer, said Scarf was putting customers at risk.
Health regulations in Alberta require a food permit and a commercial kitchen for anyone who wants to sell food to the public.
“The operator’s actions are unfortunate, and have put AHS in a position of concern, when it comes to protecting public,” according to a statement from agency spokeswoman Shannon Evans.
Alberta Health Services issued a warning to the company in October, but Scarf had continued to operate since launching the meal-ordering service on Sept. 1.
Parseyan said he ran background checks on each cook who wanted to participate, tested them on food safety rules, had their kitchens randomly inspected every three months, and took photos of the home kitchens for posting profiles on the website.
While acknowledging that what he was doing was “technically illegal,” Parseyan said that his online service guaranteed more regarding food safety than Alberta Health Services.
The province doesn’t require cooks who operate bed and breakfast operations to install commercial kitchens if they only serve a morning meal. And those who cook food at home that they plan to donate are also exempt from that requirement.
“I have no idea how breakfast food is any safer, or how by not charging people money you’re all of a sudden cooking safer,” Parseyan said. “Clearly, these laws are currently written to keep people out — not based in science or logic.”
Alberta Health Services can sue or fine those who operate, or work for, unapproved food business, but provincial officials have not indicated whether they plan to do so.
“Our efforts also help protect the owners and employees of food establishments,” the agency said in a statement. “Anyone who is operating or working for an unapproved business without a permit is taking a substantial risk.”


Internet Journal of Food Safety (Operated by FoodHACCP)
[2015] Current Issues

Vol 17.64-74
Sanitation and Hygiene Meat Handling Practices in Small and Medium Enterprise butcheries in Kenya - Case Study of Nairobi and Isiolo Counties
Sharon Chepkemoi, Peter Obimbo Lamuka, George Ooko Abong’ and Joseph Matofari

Vol 17.25-31
Combined Effect Of Disinfectant And Phage On The Survivality Of S. Typhimurium And Its Biofilm Phenotype
Mudit Chandra, Sunita Thakur, Satish S Chougule, Deepti Narang, Gurpreet Kaur and N S Sharma

Vol 17.21-24
Quality analysis of milk and milk products collected from Jalandhar, Punjab, India
Shalini Singh, Vinay Chandel, Pranav Soni

Vol 17.10-20
Functional and Nutraceutical Bread prepared by using Aqueous Garlic Extract
H.A.R. Suleria, N. Khalid, S. Sultan, A. Raza, A. Muhammad and M. Abbas

Vol 17.6-9
Microbiological Assessment of Street Foods of Gangtok And Nainital, Popular Hill Resorts of India
Niki Kharel, Uma Palni and Jyoti Prakash Tamang

Vol 17.1-5
Assessment of the Microbial Quality of Locally Produced Meat (Beef and Pork) in Bolgatanga Municipal of Ghana
Innocent Allan Anachinaba, Frederick Adzitey and Gabriel Ayum Teye

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